Nearly all of these references can be found on the internet by cutting and pasting their titles into your favorite search engine.


Hoyer S., Dept. of Pathochemistry and General Neurochemistry, Institute of Pathology of the University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 220/221, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, [Memory function and brain glucose metabolism.Pharmacopsychiatry]. 2003 Jun;36 Suppl 1:S62-7

Moulton P.L., [The effect of Ginkgo biloba on memory in healthy male volunteers].
Physiol Behav. 2001 Jul;73(4):659-65

Williams B., Watanabe CM, Schultz PG, Rimbach G, Krucker T. CVN-12, Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, [Age-related effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on synaptic plasticity and excitability]. USA. Neurobiol Aging. 2003 Aug;25(7):955-62.

Drew S., [Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial]. BMJ 2001 Jan 13;322(7278):73

Jung F., Mrowietz C., Kiesewetter H., Wenzel E., Department of Clinical Haemostasiology and Transfusion Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Fed. Rep. of Germany, [Effect of Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and peripheral microcirculation in volunteers]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 May;40(5):589-93

Oken B.S., [The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease]. Arch Neurol 1998 Nov;55(11):1409-15

Cieza A., Maier P., Poppel E., Institut fur Medizinische Psychologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, [The effect of ginkgo biloba on healthy elderly subjects] Fortschr Med Orig. 2003;121(1):5-10

Le Bars P.L., Katz M.M., Berman N., Itil TM, Freedman A.M., Schatzberg A.F.,New York Institute for Medical Research, Tarrytown 10591, USA, [A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia]. North American EGb Study Group.JAMA. 1997 Oct 22-29;278(16):1327-32

Mehlsen J., Drabaek H., Wiinberg N., Winther K., Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, [Effects of a Ginkgo biloba extract on forearm haemodynamics in healthy volunteers].Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2002 Nov;22(6):375-8

Zhang C., Zu J., Shi H., Liu J., Qin C., Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, China, 250021, [The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic microcirculation in CCl4 rats]. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(1):21-31

Horsch S., Walther C., Surgical Department, Hospital Porz/Rhein, Koln, Germany. [Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD)--a review based on randomized, controlled studies]. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Feb;42(2):63-72

Holstein N., [Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in tinnitus therapy. An overview of results of completed clinical trials]. Fortschr Med 2001 Jan 11;118(4):157-64

Le Bars P.L., [Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in tinnitus therapy. An overview of results of completed clinical trials]. Fortschr Med 2001 Jan 11;118(4):157-64

Dong L.Y., Fan L., Li G.F., Guo Y., Pan J., Chen Z.W., Department of Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.[Anti-aging action of the total lactones of ginkgo on aging mice] Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Mar;39(3):176-9

Zhang X.Y., [A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of extract of Ginkgo biloba added to haloperidol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia]. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001 Nov; 62(11):878-83.

Kohler S., Funk P., Kieser M., Clinical Research Department, Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals, 76227 Karlsruhe, Germany, [Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis]. 2004 Jun;15(4):303-9

McKenna D.J., [Efficacy, safety, and use of ginkgo biloba in clinical and preclinical applications]. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):70-86

Pittler M.H., [Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials]. Am J Med 2000 Mar;108(4):276-81

Soholm B., Sano-Pharm A/S, Vedbaek, Denmark, [Clinical improvement of memory and other cognitive functions by Ginkgo biloba: review of relevant literature]. Adv Ther. 1998 Jan-Feb;15(1):54-65.

Stough C., [Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants]. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;4(2):131-4

Yoshikawa T., [Ginkgo biloba leaf extract: review of biological actions and clinical applications]. Antioxid Redox Signal. 1999 Winter;1(4):469-80. Review